A number of these tests were ordered as multiple-choice questions. One intriguing aspect was that there were not separate exams for each topic. Rather, there was just 1 test for many subjects.
As an example, medical students look in a 7-8 hour test on a single day to show their preparedness. Same is true for financial analyst examination where candidates look in 1 examination of six months.
There was lot of work to perform and jobs were more plentiful. Studying at university for four years has been out of question as this required giving up wages for so many decades. Eventually, professionals chose to establish their own certification exams.
This ensured that only technically qualified graduates could combine professions. American universities started offering new courses in specialist areas to pull pupils who were aspiring to be accountants and engineers and financial analysts.
The problem was that a number of these professions didn’t value the technical understanding of the graduates of the universities. There is big gap between professional tests conducted in US and UK. To understand the difference, we ought to look at history of schooling. UK universities were designed to function as the top class.
Members of the upper class possessed properties and had plenty of free time to understand and share new concepts.